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地雷系一词具有负面含义,涉及自残、酗酒、卖淫等许多其他黑暗话题。具体的争议将在“批评”部分提及,建议读者自行判断。

地雷系(日:地雷系/英:Jirai Kei),是日本社媒(SNS,Social Networking Service/Site)发展而来一种对性格类型的描述,后演化对一种特定类型形象的描述,[1]这类人主要由在歌舞伎町夜生活中闲逛的青少年构成。在其流行的高峰期,它与日本少女时尚非常相似,尤其是其前卫的变体,但随后又开始融合更广泛的风格。

对这种亚文化的刻板印象是,深色时尚风格打扮的少女,看起来可爱而超女性化。但是,她们不是甜美端庄的,而是被描述为具有暴力倾向和强迫症(如Yandere),自残倾向、酗酒倾向或吸烟倾向。

许多日本品牌迅速跟随这一趋势,而一些西方品牌也开始效仿,以适应卡哇伊文化。

历史[ | ]

地雷系(地雷系)源自地雷女(Jirai Onna)。地雷女是一个贬义词,用于给女性贴上标签和刻板印象,在英语中被认为是“滴答作响的定时炸弹”("ticking time bomb"),尤其是患有边缘型人格障碍、双相情感障碍和其他引起情绪波动的疾病的精神病女性。它通常用于将女性(通常是前女友)视为疯狂和/或危险的任意特征,例如对卡哇伊的喜爱。亚文化中的女性被称为“地雷系女子”或地雷女孩,而亚文化中的男性被称为“地雷系男子”或地雷男孩。

在日本SNS泛化后,该词也被引用为形容同样具有“地雷”性格的人:即外表看似正常,实则在接触或交往后,发现拥有让人难以忍受的地方、给人犹如踩中地雷般爆炸感觉的人,将这种人称之“地雷系”或者较为直接称之为“地雷女”,词义偏贬义。该词作为一个形容对象较模糊的流行词,并不拥有太多的限制特定描述。[1]

通过搜索引擎的记录发现,该词一般被认为在2020年、日本的社交网站开始广泛兴起,随后人们又把这种风格定格为一种“以暗色系为主、带有哥特元素(某些场合也会带有中二病元素)”的潮流时尚,并在2020年的社交网站群掀起一股热潮。其流行的契机也被认为在当时疫情普遍家里蹲的情况、以及厌世、自虐、口罩的元素不无关系。[1]

由于在 2020 年 3 月日本corona restrictions期间风靡一时的“psycho girlfriend”装扮挑战,地雷系与各种黑暗的时尚风格联系在一起。这些装扮挑战高度参考了通常与东横儿童相关的特征——一个主要由年轻离家出走的青少年组成的犯罪团伙,其中一些人被年长的男性在网上培养,相信他们会在歌舞伎町的红灯区找到更好的生活。她们经常被利用从事性工作、毒品交易和其他犯罪活动。[2][3][4]

尽管来自西方的喜爱者将地雷系作为一种时尚潮流,试图将其与黑暗的根源区分开来,但总的来看,这种亚文化在日本的公众形象仍然是负面的。与psycho girlfriend比喻的联系被解释为一种厌恶女性的刻板印象,而自认为是“地雷系”的日本女孩则完全接受这种印象。这种误解来自这样一个事实,即语言障碍阻碍了对日本关于亚文化的日语文章和社交媒体帖子的准确解释,缺乏对日本如何看待心理健康问题的认识,以及品牌专注于仅将“地雷系”一词用作销售点,试图利用亚文化的受欢迎程度,而不管广告产品是否实际与之相关。

视觉效果[ | ]

Jirai makeup

@hiudayonn 经过大量P图的自拍照示例

在这个亚文化中,女孩们倾向于在她们的照片中添加大量滤镜和编辑。淡粉色和白色滤镜给所有的图像增添了一丝雾气,通常带有地雷系图案的虚拟贴纸。她们还会进行面部和身体编辑,以达到不自然的外观,如不可思议地大眼睛、苍白的皮肤和更瘦更长的身体,在照片中非常常见。这样做的目的是为了呈现出怪异和小狗眼的外观,与日本TikTok上的“pien”妆容趋势不同。地雷系的调色板主要是白色、黑色和柔和的粉红色,但有时也会使用红色、蓝色和灰色。

一个地雷系风格的房间

一个地雷系风格的房间

地雷系女孩的发饰

地雷系发饰

为了与所有甜美和少女的视觉效果形成对比,她们经常展示暴力元素,如开箱刀、剃须刀和小刀常出现在服装帖子中。一种刻板印象是,如果她的男朋友惹她不高兴,或者她感到沮丧,地雷女孩会拿这些图片来威胁他。此外,这些可爱的女孩经常用吸管摆姿势,拿着假枪(因为在日本枪支是非法的)、香烟、酒精和能量饮料(如Strong Zero和Monster Energy),大概是为了在喝酒时保护她们的口红。许多照片都与能量饮料罐的配色方案匹配,甚至流行将罐子堆叠和粘合成机枪的形状。与Yami Kawaii类似,经常有药丸和注射器的医学图像,通常与麻醉剂和合成药物配对。

三丽鸥与日本的卡哇伊、少女和消费主义文化密切相关。因此,进入地雷系的女孩也与这些角色有关,特别是Kuromi和My Melody。这个亚文化中的人们拥有并拍摄这些角色的毛绒玩具,并拥有以这些角色为主题的各种商品,例如背包、铅笔袋等。三丽鸥已经注意到了这一点,甚至发布了以地雷系为灵感的Kuromi和My Melody毛绒玩具。另一个相关的角色是七濑胡桃(Menhera-chan),一个让病娇文化普及的自杀魔法少女。她的画师将她画成刻板的服装,她的自我毁灭习惯可能与亚文化中的人有关。

还有许多与亚文化打交道的艺术家,他们绘制了动漫风格的插图,描绘了地雷女孩在刻板印象中穿着典型服装的插图,例如自拍、蹲在街上拿着罐头或精神崩溃。地雷系的追随者经常在社交媒体上分享这些画作。

Fashion[ | ]

Unbenannt

以蓝色档案人物为特色的自来少女所穿的各种款式

The styles associated with 地雷系 are constantly changing with the core defining trait being that the fashion is worn by landmine girls. Comparable to E-Girl's style, while landmine girls may wear many different fashion styles, there is a main look typically associated with the aesthetic that evolved out of a mix of several different alternative genres. The initial look associated with the 地雷系 subculture derived from Japanese Girly fashion and Yami Kawaii, however outfits consisting out of Goth Punk, Jersey Maid, and darker general alternative fashion have also been popular among its followers. As the trends within 地雷系 keep on changing, many brands mimic one another and release mix-and-match variations for the various styles worn. The fabric of the clothes tends to be on the more synthetic side, with the quality not being that high, on account of them often being made by fast fashion companies who constantly adopt to the latest trends.

地雷系的眼部妆容

地雷系的眼部妆容

Regardless of the style worn, the idea is to appear cute yet mature, but with an dark aura.

Tops[ | ]

The most common tops are blouses with ultra-feminine details that may slightly resemble Lolita Fashion. Peter Pan collars, ruffles, lace trim, puffed sleeves, cold-shoulders, contrasting buttons are some tropes that are featured in the blouses. Alternative outfits use coat-dresses instead, and winter outfits utilize knit sweaters. Girls also often tie ribbons or add bow brooches with rhinestone or pearl-accented faux jewels at the neck.

Some brands have also released oversized tees and sweatshirts that can fit in with this aesthetic. They often have a print with a stereotypical motif, English text, anime prints, etc. These also contain feminine details, but less often. For example, there may be eyelets for lacing ribbon through, zippers, or detachable Peter Pan collars. This resembles the fashion of the Yami Kawaii aesthetic, and contributes to an edgier and less girly look. Jirai boys add masculine or androgynous elements to this style, while girls like to pair these tops with chunky sneakers and necklaces.

Bottoms[ | ]

High waisted mini skirts are by far the most popular bottom. The silhouette can be flared, trapezoid or pleated. Silver hardware details such as heart-shaped belt buckles, eyelets, and zippers add edge to the outfit and contrast the lace and girly details of the blouse. But there are also ruffles, ribbon lacing to resemble a corset, and ruffled suspenders to add girliness. Shorts can also be featured in this aesthetic, as well as longer flowy skirts. However, they are both comparatively rare to the mini skirts. Usually the bottoms are black while the top is pink or white, though sometimes this is flipped.

The more casual Jersey Maid and Yami Kawaii inspired looks can also have track pants like ones from Adidas as a pairing with a track suit jacket or oversized tee or sweatshirt.

Shoes and Legwear[ | ]

Because the legs are most often exposed in this style, lace or fishnet stockings are worn, and could be switched or even doubled up with ruffled or lace ankle socks.

The shoes are most commonly platform loafers or multi-strapped mary janes, and most girls buy their shoes from BUBBLES Tokyo, DearMyLove, Liz Lisa and others. The shoes can be more decorated, with faux jewels, ribbon laces, rhinestone buckles and silver cross charms.

Accessories[ | ]

The most popular bags are totes and mini backpacks. Usually, they're pink or black, sometimes adorned with ribbons and bows with plushies or Sanrio figurine keychains attached. The most popular mini backpacks on social media are the studded MCM mini packpack and Melody Maison de Fleur totes. Other girls may instead use bags from popular luxury brands.

Aside from ribbons and bows, there is not much jewelry involved in 地雷系. Most styles include only earrings or neckwear like chokers, piercings and necklaces. A popular trend is the Viviene Westwood orb necklace. Because of the color scheme, many girls avoid gold jewelry and opt for silver.

Hair and Makeup[ | ]

Jirai hair

Akagumi-chan 的典型发型插图

Hime-cut bangs, which are straight bangs across the forehead with side bangs around chin-length, are extremely popular amongst young women in Japan in general as it is an easy way to archive the illusion of a small face. It fits in with the ultra-feminine style. Because these women are Japanese and around high school age, the most common hair color is black, since dyed hair is not allowed in schools. However, some girls add highlights that can be bleached blonde or in different shades of pink.

In terms of styling, pigtails (also called twin tails), are the majority hairstyle. They can be either low or high, with high pigtails often being half-up half-down. Girls often curl the ends and decorate these twin tails with ribbons and bows, often with the same faux jewels on their brooches. Other hair accessories such as rectangle headdresses, headbands with faux jewels, and bobby pins with charms are popular too.

For the eye makeup, the most popular is an exaggerated version of the "namida bukuro" makeup style where the tear bags are emphasized to look puffy as if the wearer is about to cry, which is further highlighted with pink undereye blush. The additional effect of appearing sickly is also desired. The eyeliner is downturned to give a more "puppy-like" , feminine and sad appearance.

Face and lip makeup are equally pink, with blush and sparkly highlighter being high on the cheekbones. Lip makeup has a wide variation, with some looks being more matte, some glossy, some sculpted, some even.

Many additional cosmetic products are also used for exaggerated features. Fake lashes are generally popular in Japan, and in 地雷系, they are longer and spikier. Dark circle lenses are also popular, and serve to make the eyes look bigger and anime-like.

Long acrylic nails are also popular and often feature lace patterns, faux jewels, corset lacing, crosses, as well as stereotypical motifs like the pleading face emoji.

媒体[ | ]

Literature[ | ]

  • Host Madness - Oizumi Rika
  • Kabukicho Moratorium - Chiwawa Sasaki
  • People Who Overdose - Chiwawa Sasaki
  • The Disease of Pien: Consumption and Approval of the SNS Generation - Chiwawa Sasaki

Manga[ | ]

  • Ashita, Watashi wa Dareka no Kanojo - Tomorrow, I'll Be Someone's Girlfriend
  • Android wa Jirai-kei no Yume wo Miru - Android Dreams of a 地雷系 Girl
  • Kiken na Ren'ai - Dangerous Love
  • Kimi ni Aisarete Itakatta - It Hurts To Be Loved By You
  • Jirai Kareshi - My Boyfriend's a Ticking Time Bomb
  • Jirai-kei JK to Onee-chan no Hanashi - The Landmine Girl and Her Sister
  • Jirai Ninja Ruru no Shitsuren - Jirai Ninja Ruru's Heartbreak
  • KakaKano - Dating the Kind of Girl You Shouldn't Get Involved With
  • Koi wa Jirai wo Funde kara - A Love That Begins After Stepping On A Mine
  • Mitame Jirai-kei Osananajimi - My Childhood Friend Looks Like A Landmine But Isn't
  • Yamaarashi no Shisha (ヤマアラシのシーシャ)
  • Zenma (銭麻)

Television[ | ]

  • Ashita, Watashi wa Dareka no Kanojo
  • Cinderella Complex
  • Ishiko and Haneo: You're Suing Me? (episode 7)
  • The Black Swindler (episode 8)

Video Games[ | ]

  • JIRAIYA
  • Needy Streamer Overload
  • Sentimental Deathloop
  • Suteki na Kanojo no Tsukurikata
  • Yandere ura Kano Jirai-chan
  • Yamikore

音乐[ | ]

Songs[ | ]

  • Alice*Iris - Daikirai Lie Suki
  • Alice*Iris - Gimme Me Love
  • Amu - Pien Syndrome
  • Amu - Mekka Warning
  • Cagayake - Unleash
  • Chilldspot - Ai Ai
  • DECO*27 - The Vampire
  • Isana - Menhera Janai Mon!
  • HoneyWorks - Kawaikute Gomen
  • KAFU - Egonomy
  • Kai - Unicorn Girl
  • Kai - Lose the Princess
  • Kairiki Bear - Darling Dance
  • LiLiPi - Shukipi Overdose
  • Magnetite Hiiragi feat. KAFU - Pet Me
  • Mitsu Akuma - My Ex-Blocker
  • Monoclone - Kakou Shite Nani ga Warui!
  • Ojeimaru feat. Ice - Raspbunny
  • Pien Big Four - Kimi Shika Katan!
  • Pien Big Four - Watashi ga No. 1 jinsei ~Omae wa Wakiyaku~
  • Puku - Lovely Shoujo
  • Rosu - Uwaki??
  • Ruru - Yabai Okusuri
  • Shin - Neon
  • Takayan - Escape when it's tough
  • Takayan - Sinking is better!
  • Takayan - Want to kill, but I love you
  • TUYU - Under Heroine
  • TUYU - Under Kids
  • Twinpale - BAD to LIP

Playlists[ | ]

批评[ | ]

Jirai bag contents

The typical bag contents of a "landmine girl" illustrated, including box cutters.

Due to the roots of the term, 地雷系 is highly associated with dark and disturbing themes that are also very prevalent within the subculture. There are strong associations with mental illness, self harm, drug usage, sex work, underage prostitution, and other uncomfortable subjects. The negative aspects of the "landmine" stereotype are often emulated and romanticized as a quirky gimmick solely for aesthetic reasons.[5] On Twitter in particular, it's not uncommon for followers of the subculture to constantly promote self-destructive behaviour, the accounts often being part of shtwt (pro-self-harm) and edtwt (pro-eating disorder).[6] There's also a strong association with "bangya" culture with landmine girls also being stereotyped as groupies who are obsessive over their favorite bands and music artists to an unhealthy degree.

Another problem is the fetishization of the "landmine" stereotype, which is a glimpse into the wider topic of sexualizing women who exhibit mental illness. It is problematic for its ableist rhetoric claiming mentally-ill women to be "freaky", "hot but crazy" and more desirable sexually and emotionally, as well as its infantalistic undertone of these women being more emotionally attached and dependent on their lover's affection.[7] This fetishization of mentally ill women and use of the femme-fatale archetype ignores the unpleasant nuances of suffering from BPD or bipolar disorder and targets women who are mentally vulnerable to emotionally abusive, power-imbalanced relationships.[8]

There also have been issues caused by the strong associations with the host culture of Kabukicho. As people of any age can enter those establishments as long as no alcohol is served, male hosts have been actively going for young girls to spend money on them in exchange for affection, often resulting in the girls resorting to "papa katsu" (sugar-daddying) in order to afford their host club addiction.[9]

Because the clothes worn are often very brand specific, some 地雷系 netizens suggest that there is slight elitism in the community for purchasing items from the "correct" stores, regardless of if the price can be prohibitively expensive, particularly for western followers that endure high shipping fees from Japanese brand proxies. On social media, especially on TikTok, some argue that this brand-focused side of 地雷系 encourages hyper consumerism and trend-cycling while the same is also said for those who buy cheap replica items from problematic fast fashion stores like Shein/Romwe.

As the subculture can't be separated from its problematic parts precisely because they are what make 地雷系 what it is, many have argued that its name shouldn't be used in a throwaway manner in reference to styles or trends in order to not expose strangers to potential triggering content.

参考资料[ | ]

外部链接有助于更好地了解这种美学。

如需进一步了解,请参见Japanese Fashion Wiki萌娘百科的相关页面。

Blogs[ | ]

Vendors[ | ]

Gallery[ | ]

References[ | ]

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