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Glassmorphism, known officially as Fluent Design System, is an aesthetic and UI/UX design theme that combines elements of Flat Design with modern design philosophies. It combines depth, motion, and material to create a seamless user experience, while preserving the clean look and feel Flat Design introduced; it shares similarities with both Flat Design and Frutiger Aero. It has been used in UI design since the Mid-2010s, and some notable examples include Microsoft Fluent Design, which was first introduced in 2017 and is now being used in Windows 11, Bing, and Microsoft Edge UI. Android custom UI/UX, mostly Chinese brands, such as EMUI, ColorOS, and MIUI have also been using this since around 2015-2016. Recently, some Linux distros have also been implementing this design; iOS/macOS have been the first using it since 2013. Glassmorphism/Fluent Design is not a subgenre of Skeuomorphism because they don't have much in common, and breaks the realistic motifs of Skeuomorphism. However, it can be considered an adjacent/heavily related aesthetic. Neumorphism is a subgenre of Glassmorphism.


The roots of Glassmorphism can be traced back to Apple's iOS 7 released in 2013. Apple played a significant role in its inception, introducing translucent backgrounds, subtle transparency effects, rounded corners, and gradients that paved the way for what we now recognize as Glassmorphism. Since its introduction, this design has undergone various transformations and gained broader recognition. or example, since 2016, Xiaomi, Huawei, Oppo and other brands custom UI's tried to imitate the UI/UX design of iOS. Microsoft's Fluent Design System design language released in 2017 showcases aspects of Glassmorphism, with its emphasis on transparency, soft lighting, and subtle depth effects. Windows 11 (2021) currently features Glassmorphism in the form of Fluent Design.


Glassmorphism incorporates elements from other aesthetics such as Frutiger Aero's "aero" glass, and shiny translucent effects. It also borrows from the simplicity of Flat Design, while incorporating elements that make use of gentle forms and soft edges, sometimes combined with muted lights and subtle shadows. In contrast to the muted and minimalistic tendencies of Flat Design, Glassmorphism adopts a diverse range of colors, a more humanistic terface, and frosted/translucent transparency effects. Wallpaper designs within the Glassmorphic realm tend to be simple, abstract, and colorful, as seen in Xiaomi, Huawei, Samsung and the latest builds of iOS and macOS.



Main article: Neumorphism

Neumorphism, also referred to as Claymorphism, is a design language and Glassmorphism/Skeuomorphism sub-aesthetic that combines elements of Skeuomorphism and Flat Design. It emphasizes soft, rounded shapes, subtle shadows, and gradients. It is often used in UI/UX designs to create a more realistic, natural look and feel. Neumorphism was created in 2019 by independent Figma community designers. Windows 11 and macOS only apply Neumorphism to certain icons but not to their entire UIs.



Operative Systems[]

  • iOS (since 2013)
  • Windows 10 (2015) (since 1909 update in 2019)
  • Windows 11 (2021)
  • Linux Deepin (since 2020)
  • visionOS (2024)




  • Microsoft Edge (since 2019)
  • Xiaomi MIUI (since 2016)
  • Samsung One UI (2019-present)
  • Oppo ColorOS (since 2016)
  • Huawei EMUI (since 2015)
  • some of Discord (since 2023)
  • Windows 11 (since 2021)