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Flamenco is a musical genre, tradition and dance most associated with the autonomous community of Andalusia in southern Spain. Its cultural origins date back to as early as the 9th century in the region, and it was especially developed by the Calé (Roma) ethnic minority who originally came from northern India. It is a rich hybrid of several traditions and folklores; especially that of Andalusia and other areas of southern Spain and the Roma people, with some minor influences from the Arabian peninsula, Northern Africa and Sephardic Jewish culture.


The golden age of Flamenco is usually considered to be the period between roughly 1780 and 1845. Singing was then the primary aspect of flamenco, dancing and musical accompaniment being secondary. What had been an essentially outdoor, outsider, family-oriented activity that focused on cante was transformed beginning in 1842, when Silverio Franconetti founded the first café cantante, Café sin Nombre (Nameless Café/Café Without a Name), in Sevilla (Seville). That establishment and many others that sprang up in the major urban centres of Spain— notably Granada, Córdoba, and Sevilla— placed emphasis on the musicians and dancers, and it was in this period that the singer began to take a secondary role. Although these commercial interests afforded a living for many performers for the first time, they also brought about what many considered a bastardization of an authentic indigenous art form. Several intellectuals, including Lorca and composer Manuel de Falla, sought to restore the purity of flamenco, and in 1922 they instituted the first flamenco competition— calling for cante primitivo andaluz ("primitive Andalusian cante"). This timely attempt to prevent the further debasement of an authentic folk art effectively promoted flamenco to a sophisticated urban public and helped to further the thoughtful development of the art within a modern context.

Among the many great early 20th-century performers are La Argentina (Antonia Mercé), Vicente Escudero, Carmen Amaya, La Argentinita (Encarnación López), José Greco, and Pilar López, as well as the troupes of Antonio and Rosario (Antonio Ruiz Soler and Rosario Florencia Pérez Podilla) and Ximénez-Vargas (Roberto Ximénez and Manolo Vargas). Classically influenced flamenco artists Antonio Gades, Christina Hoyos, José Greco II, and Lola Greco have also pushed the boundaries of flamenco. Gades in particular, in his collaborations with the filmmaker Carlos Saura, introduced flamenco to an international audience, demonstrating through his ingenious choreographic direction the dimensions of flamenco as an expandable performance art.

Contemporary artists such as Eva la Yerbabuena, Joaquín Cortés, Antonio Canales, Belén Maya, and Juana Amaya are creating new rhythmic strategies in the studio and integrating them into longer narrative theatre pieces in which rhythm becomes the dominant element of the dance. In the last few decades of the 20th century, flamenco also was influenced by the general musical trend toward fusion of styles.


Some of the principal aspects of Flamenco's fashion contains:

  • Red dresses
  • Head accessories
  • Extravagant aresses
  • Use of flowers




  • "MALAMENTE" by Rosalía
  • "Todo es color" by Lole y Manuel
  • "Deja Que te bese" by Alejandro Sanz

Notable Figures[]

  • Rosalía
  • Sara Baras
  • Antonio Canales
  • Joaquin Cortés
  • Cecilia Gomez
  • Cristina Hoyos
  • El Carrete
  • El Farruco
  • Farruquito
  • Manuela Carrasco
  • La Paula


Tourist Traps[]


Andalusia within the map of Spain.

Outside the Iberian Peninsula, Flamenco is considered one of the most iconic traditions of Spain, however Spanish people rather consider it one of the key traditions of Andalusian culture due to regional differences and diversity[1] throughout the country. Because of this, Flamenco dance is a very easy target for tourist traps in Spain, and to enjoy true Flamenco culture it might be preferred to visit the autonomous community of Andalusia[2] .